級別 問題集 工業英検1級2級問題 直近の試験問題と模範解答 「工業英検」受験案内

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4級試験問題  60分間で挑戦してみよう。6割以上正解で合格!
Ⅰ 次の(a)から(g)のそれぞれの和訳から最も適切なものを1つ選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各10点 (70点)>
(a) This formula is used to calculate the area of a triangle.
   1. この公式は、三角の土地の角度を計算するのに用いられる。
   2. この公式は、土地の三角測量を計算するのに用いられる。
   3. この公式は、三角錐の体積を計算するのに用いられる。
   4. この公式は、三角形の面積を計算するのに用いられる。
(b) A LAN must be constructed to exchange data between computers.
   1. コンピュータとLANの構成には、データを変換する必要がある。
   2. コンピュータの間に接続されたLANで、データを変換する。
   3. コンピュータ間のデータ交換には、LANを構築する必要がある。
   4. データ交換するためのコンピュータは、LANの接続が必要である。
(c) The energy of the electron is in proportion to the strength of the electric field.
   1. 電子のエネルギーは、電界強度の形に変化する。
   2. 電子のエネルギーは、電界の強さに比例する。
   3. 電界のエネルギーの強さに電子は影響する。
   4. 電子は電界の強さの形に分布する。
(d) The atomic number equals the number of protons in the nucleus.
   1. 原子番号は、原子核にある陽子の数に等しい。
   2. 原子量は、原子核にある陽子の数に等しい。
   3. 原子番号は、分子にある質量数に等しい。
   4. 原子量は、分子にある質量数に等しい。
(e) In organic farming, chemical fertilizers are not used to improve the soil.
   1. 有機農業は、化学薬品を使用しないので土壌の質が低下する。
   2. 有機農業は、土質を悪化する化学肥料は使わない。
   3. 有機農業は、土壌を不毛にする農薬は使わない。
   4. 有機農業は、土壌の質を高めるために化学肥料を使用しない。
(f) This homepage has been accessed more than a hundred times since we opened it.
   1. このホームページを開設したので、100回以上アクセスしてほしい。
   2. このホームページを開設して以来、100回以上もアクセスがあった。
   3. このホームページを見ていたら、100回以上しても理解できないような記事があった。
   4. 100回以上アクセスしたこのホームページがあったので、われわれも開設した。
(g) The beaker is two-thirds full of water.
   1. ビーカーの2~3割に水が入っている。
   2. ビーカーに2~3目盛りまで水を入れなさい。
   3. 2~3滴の水をビーカーに入れなさい。
   4. ビーカーに水が3分の2入っている。

Ⅱ 次の(a)から(o)の英語に、それぞれ相当する日本語を選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各2点 (30点)>
(a) relieve    (1. 負担する  2. 軽減する  3. 圧力をかける)
(b) cellular    (1. 携帯の   2. 細胞の    3. 軽量の)
(c) extra     (1. 余分の    2. 内部の   3. 多数の)
(d) advantage (1. 進歩      2. 冒険    3. 優位)
(e) format    (1. 床運動    2. 正式の  3. 書式)
(f) compare   (1. 先導する  2. 中止する  3. 比較する)
(g) convert   (1. 利用する  2. 転換する  3. 応用する)
(h) resources (1. 抵抗   2. 資源   3. 記録)
(i) uneven   (1. 等質でない  2. 広範囲の  3. 偶数の)
(j) follow     (1. 後に続く  2. 未来の  3. 旧式の)
(k) vibrate   (1. 振動する  2. 反応する  3. 共鳴する)
(l) burst    (1. 破壊する  2. 燃やす  3. 呼吸する)
(m) replacement (1. 移動  2. 調整  3. 取り替え)
(n) revolution   (1. 検査  2. 回転  3. 溶液)
(o) function    (1. 機種  2. 機能  3. 機械類)

Ⅲ 次の(a)から(e)につづく英文として、最も適当なものを下の1から5より選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。なお、1から5は1回しか使えません。<各3点 (15点)>
(a) The printer is used for printing the data
(b) Digestion starts in your mouth
(c) The infrared sensor detects
(d) The word radar comes
(e) A CD-ROM is a disk
1. that you see on the screen.
2. persons approaching the entrance door.
3. when food is chewed.
4. on which a large amount of data is stored.
5. from the initial letters of radio detection and ranging.

Ⅳ 次の各英文の( )に入れるのに最も適切な語を下の1から5より選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。なお、1から5の各語は1回しか使えません。<各3点 (15点)>
(a) Alcohol is (   ) used in car engines, usually with gasoline.
(b) A layer is a (   ) of some material laid over a surface.
(c) The clock is (   ) to within one or two seconds a month.
(d) A screwdriver is a (   ) used to tighten or loosen screws.
(e) Solar power is still (   ) expensive to be used in power stations.
1. thickness     2. tool   3. accurate   4. being   5. too

Ⅴ 次の各英文を完成させるために、それぞれの1から3より最も適切な語を選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各4点 (20点)>
(a) Computer-controlled machines in factories are sometimes called industrial (1. lines 2. products 3. robots).
(b) Amplification means making weak electrical signals (1. larger  2. stronger  3. wider).
(c) A large (1. area  2. mountain  3. lake) of land is now at high risk of becoming desert.
(d) Pure water (1. weight  2. weighs  3. weighted) one kilogram per liter.
(e) Finish well to make the surface (1. smooth  2. rough  3. tight).

Ⅵ 次の(a)から(e)がそれぞれ正しい意味を表すように、和文を参考にして( )に入れるのに最も適切な語を下の1から10より選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各4点 (20点)>
(a) To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the power cable (   ) touching the unit.
    感電するといけないので、まずユニットの電源を抜いておくこと。
(b) Be careful (   ) contaminate the balance with chemicals.
    天秤に薬品が付かないように注意しなさい。
(c) IC recorders do not (   ) cassette tapes or disks.
    ICレコーダには、テープやディスクは必要ない。
(d) The angle of incidence is (   ) to the angle of reflection.
    入射角は反射角に……。
(e) An increase in (   ) is called acceleration.
    加速は、……の増加である。
1. after    2. equal   3. necessary   4. speed   5. require
6. before   7. engine     8. do not    9. not to    10. against

Ⅶ 次の(a)から(o)の日本語に、それぞれ相当する英語を選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各2点 (30点)>
(a) 対話     (1. speak    2. voice   3. dialog)
(b) 調和させる (1. match    2. contrast   3. compare)
(c) 構成する  (1. compose   2. concrete  3. contain)
(d) 破壊する  (1. damage    2. crash   3. breakdown)
(e) 組織化する (1. active    2. organize  3. member)
(f) 巻く     (1. rotate   2. wind  3. circle)
(g) 極      (1. north   2. pole   3. end)
(h) 溶ける   (1. mix   2. melt   3. break)
(i) 取り扱う   (1. handle   2. operate   3. cancel)
(j) 数字     (1. code   2. numeral   3. stage)
(k) 凍った   (1. frost   2. frozen   3. hard)
(l) 圧縮機   (1. distributor   2. compressor   3. container)
(m) 白熱する  (1. grow  2. glue   3. glow)
(n) 囲う     (1. enclose   2. release   3. store)
(o) 航空の   (1. aero   2. navy   3. airplane)


4級模範解答
Ⅰ (a) 4  (b) 3  (c) 2  (d) 1  (e) 4  (f) 2  (g) 4
Ⅱ (a) 2  (b) 2  (c) 1  (d) 3  (e) 3  (f) 3  (g) 2  (h) 2  (i) 1  (j) 1  (k) 1  (l) 1  (m) 3 (n) 2  (o) 2
Ⅲ (a) 1  (b) 3  (c) 2  (d) 5  (e) 4
Ⅳ (a) 4  (b) 1  (c) 3  (d) 2  (e) 5
Ⅴ (a) 3  (b) 2  (c) 1  (d) 2  (e) 1
Ⅵ (a) 6  (b) 9  (c) 5  (d) 2  (c) 4
Ⅶ (a) 3  (b) 1  (c) 1  (d) 2  (e) 2  (f) 2  (g) 2 (h) 2  (i) 1 (j) 2  (k) 2 (l) 2  (m) 3  (n) 1   (o) 1
3級試験問題  70分間で挑戦してみよう。6割以上正解で合格!
Ⅰ 次の(aから(j)の英語に、それぞれ最も適切な日本語を選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。 <各2点(20点)>
(a) initialize   (1.初期化する 2.組み込む  3.目盛を付ける)
(b) reciprocation   (1.登録     2.往復運動  3.逆数)
(c) hyperbola     (1.放物線    2.双曲線   3.座標)
(d) prediction    (1.出版     2.手順     3.予測)
(e) accumulation  (1.照明     2.蓄積    3.除去)
(f) sterilization    (1.殺菌     2.操縦    3.誘導)
(g) alignment     (1.変更    2.調整    3.分析)
(h) antidote     (1.汚染物   2.抗生物質 3.解毒剤)
(i) refinement    (1.精製    2.参照    3.中和)
(j) apparent     (1.見かけの  2.透明な  3.従来の)

Ⅱ 次の(a)から(j)の日本語に、それぞれ最も適切な英語を選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。 <各2点(20点)>
(a) 揮発性     (1.volatility    2.flexibility     3.security)
(b) 利用する   (1.emerge      2.sterilize     3.utilize)
(c) 消耗      (1.consumption   2.application   3.contact)
(d) 従来の     (1.ultimate     2.conventional  3.identical)
(e) 置換      (1.substitution  2.elimination    3.extraction)
(f) 同期化する  (1.activate      2.liberalize     3.synchronize)
(g) 整数      (1.integer    2.fractional number 3.decimal fraction)
(h) 粘性      (1.validity       2.viscosity    3.variation)
(i) 実施       (1.alternation    2.precipitation  3.implementation)
(j) 凝縮      (1.decomposition  2.solidification  3.condensation)

Ⅲ 次の各英語の説明に相当する最も適切な語を下の1から10より選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。 <各5点(20点)>

(a)A computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a college.
(b)An electronic device containing only two electrodes: an anode and a cathode.
(c)A group of thin and thick lines from which a computer reads information about a product that is sold in a shop.
(d)A diverse group of organic molecules that are required for metabolic reactions and generally cannot be synthesized in the body.
1.LAN     2.minerals  3.intelligent code  4.triode    5.transistor
6.bar code  7.WWW    8.credit card     9.vitamins  10.diode


Ⅳ 次の各組の英文が同じ意味になるように( )に入れるのに最も適切な語を下の1から10より選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。 <各5点(20点)>
(a) Tin is not easily corroded by air or water.
  Tin has ( ) to corrosion by air or water.
(b) The spokes of a wheel spread out in all directions from the center.
  The spokes of a wheel ( ) in all directions from the center.
(c) When transforming a liquid into a gas, the process of vaporization takes place.
  Vaporization ( ) as a liquid changes into a gas.
(d) Stopping and starting the radio wave is the simplest method of modulation.
  The simplest method of modulation is to ( ) the radio wave on and off.

    1.avoids   2.assemble  3.resistance   4.happened     5.occurs
    6.turn    7.move     8.described   9.opportunity   10.radiate

Ⅴ 次の各英文を完成させるために、それぞれの1から4より最も適切な語を選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。 <各5点(40点)>
(a)This principle states that the volume of a solid is equal to the volume of water it (1. deducts  2. spreads  3. displaces  4. floods).
(b)Integrated circuits (1. provide  2. install  3. release  4. adopt) economy of space together with a high degree of reliability.
(c)When two different substances are rubbed together, electricity is generally (1. connected  2. created  3. formed  4. stopped).
(d) An icon is a small picture on the screen (1. when  2. why  3. that  4.what) represents a program, folder, or file.
(e) The effect is the same whether you connect the wheel (1. over  2. at  3. along  4. with) a belt or a chain.
(f) Your eyes are (1. video  2. mechanical  3. optical  4. medical) instruments like the microscope and the telescope, but they can adjust more easily.
(g) A wrench is a tool used to (1. bear  2. press  3. sustain  4. tighten) nuts and bolts.
(h) Much of the remaining loss (1. reduces  2. decreases  3. converts  4.results) from braking and the ejection of hot exhaust gases.

Ⅵ 次の英文を読んで、各設問に答えなさい。 <各10点(30点)>
   The power produced by a wind turbine depends on how fast the wind is blowing. (1) The higher the wind speed, the greater the potential output power you may expect from the turbine. The power available from the wind is proportional to the cube of its speed. Doubling the wind speed increases power available by a factor of eight times. (2) A very small change in wind speed translates to a big increase in available power. Average wind speed is the critical factor that determines the economic effectiveness of wind machines.

(a) 英文に最も合う見出しを、次の1から4より選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。
   1. Application of wind energy
   2. Relationship between wind speed and electric power
   3. Effective utilization of wind power
   4. Wind turbine and its economical efficiency
(b) 下線部(1)の和訳として最も適切なものを次の1から4より選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。

   1. 風速が大きい場合、風力タービンの効率が高いほど大きな出力パワーが得られる可能性が高まる。
   2. 風速が大きいほど、風力タービンから大きな出力パワーが得られる可能性が高まる。
   3. 風速が大きい場合、風力タービンから得られる潜在的な出力パワーはタービンの大きさで決定される。
   4. 風速が大きいほど、それだけ風力タービンから得られる潜在的な出力パワーが大きくなる。
(c) 下線部(2)の和訳として最も適切なものを次の1から4より選び、その番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。
   1. 小さな風速の変化は、有効パワーの大幅な増加として翻訳される。
   2. 小さな風速の変化は、有効パワーの大幅な変化として翻訳される。
   3. 風速がほんの少し変化するだけで利用できるパワーは大幅に増加する。
   4. 風速がほんの少し変化するだけで利用できるパワーは大幅に変化する。

Ⅶ 次の各和文の意味を表すように、1から7を並べかえて英文を作るとき、3番目と5番目にくる最も適切 な番号を解答欄にマークしなさい。 <各10点(50点)>
(a) 地球の表面は、今や過去のどの時代よりもはるかに速く温暖化している。
   The earth’s surface is (1. any time  2. than  3. at  4. rapidly  5. more  6. far  7. warming up) in the past.

(b) 原子構造の研究から、すべての物質が正電荷と負電荷の両方を持つことが知られている。
   From a study of atomic structure, (1. contains  2. known  3. is  4. all  5.that  6. matter  7. it) both positive and negative charges.

(c) 働く人が情報を簡単に共有できるようにすることによって、ネットワークは生産性を増加させる。
   Networks (1. workers  2. to share  3. productivity  4. increase  5. allowing  6. information  7. by) easily.

(d) 形状記憶合金は変形しても熱すると元の形に戻るという興味深い性質をもっている。
   Shape-memory alloys (1. they  2. an interesting property  3. in that  4.their original shape  5. have  6. recover  7. can) on heating if deformed.

(e) この材料は熱ショックや振動ショックに耐えるにはあまりにももろすぎる。
   This material (1. endure  2. and  3. to  4. brittle  5. is  6. thermal  7. too) vibrational shock.


3級模範解答
Ⅰ (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) 2 (f) 1 (g) 2 (h) 3 (i) 1 (j) 1
Ⅱ (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 2 (e) 1 (f) 3 (g) 1 (h) 2 (i) 3 (j) 3
Ⅲ (a) 1 (b) 10 (c) 6 (d) 9
Ⅳ (a) 3 (b) 10 (c) 5 (d) 6
Ⅴ (a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 (e) 4 (f) 3 (g) 4 (h) 4
Ⅵ (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 3
Ⅶ (a) 5-2 (b) 2-4 (c) 7-1 (d) 3-7 (e) 4-1
準2級試験問題  80分間
Ⅰ 次の(a)から(e)の英語に、それぞれ相当する英語を選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各4点(20点)>
(a) caliper 1. an instrument for measuring thicknesses and diameters
2. a device for automatically regulating temperature
3. an instrument for measuring gasoline
(b) ROM 1. repeat of memory
2. read only memory
3. radiation or motion
(c) coherent 1. logically consistent
2. logically closed
3. logically modified
(d) proof 1. indication
2. the act of pronouncing
3. a test or trial of the truth
(e) heavy-oil storage tank 1. a heavy tank that stores oil
2. a storage tank operated by heavy oil
3. a storage tank for heavy oil

Ⅱ 次の各英文の( )に入れるのに最も適切な語を下の1から12より選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各5点(30点)>
(a) Certain kinds of bacteria attack wood and break down the chemical substances of ( a-1 ) it is composed. This breaking down is what we call rot or ( a-2 ).
(b) Apart from differences caused by air ( b-1 ), all bodies fall to the ground at the same speed, ( b-2 ) their weight is.
(c) Mercury and alcohol make good liquids for thermometers. The ( c-1 ) of both increases uniformly ( c-2 ) increasing temperature.
1.on 2.decay 3.volume 4.which
5.wherever 6.resistance 7.decrease 8.whatever
9.quality 10.with 11.where 12.crush

Ⅲ 次の(a)から(e)のそれぞれの英文から最も簡潔に書き直した英文を1つ選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各6点(30点)>
(a) Snow comes into existence as water vapor in a cloud-like substance in the sky.
1. A cloud starts as snow in water vapor.
2. Snow starts as water vapor in a cloud.
3. Water vapor causes a cloud-like substance to turn into snow.
(b) Radio waves are received or radiated by a device called an antenna.
1. An antenna is received or radiated by radio waves.
2. Radio waves receive or radiate an antenna.
3. An antenna radiates or receives radio waves.
(c) Through automation, a new era in manufacturing has been opened up by computers.
1. Automation has opened up a new era in the manufacture of computers.
2. Through automation, a new era has opened computer manufacturing.
3. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing through automation.
(d) In the case of this building, the foundation on which it rests is reinforced concrete.
1. This building rests on a reinforced concrete foundation.
2. The rest of this building’s foundation is reinforced concrete.
3. The case of this building was lost because of a reinforced concrete foundation.
(e) The pressure of a quantity of air is increased by an air compressor by mechanical means.
1. The mechanical pressure increases with the quantity of air.
2. An air compressor mechanically increases the pressure of a quantity of air
3. An air compressor is mechanically operated by an increase in the quantity of air.

Ⅳ 次の各組の英文が同じ意味になるように( )に入れるのに最も適切な語を下の1から12より選び、その番号を解答欄に記入しなさい。<各5点(20点)>
(a) This metal is mixed with 2% of other substances.
This metal has a (  ) of 98%.
(b) The CPU consists of three parts: a control unit, an arithmetic-logic unit, and memory.
A control unit, an arithmetic-logic unit, and memory are the three parts that (  ) the CPU.
(c) An image seen through a convex lens is turned upside down.
An image seen through a convex lens is (  ).
(d) Torque varies directly with the current flowing through the coil
Torque is directly (  ) to the current flowing through the coil.
1.purified 2.form 3.proportion 4.inverted
5.opposition 6.replaced 7.purity 8.reform
9.ratio 10.proportional 11.rounded 12.act

Ⅴ 次の(a)から(d)より2問選び、和訳しなさい。なお、選んだ2問の記号を解答欄の□に記入しなさい。<各15点(30点)>
(a) Superconductivity involves a remarkable transition phenomenon* that occurs in metals when cooled to temperatures within several degrees of absolute zero, equivalent to -273℃.
[注]*remarkable transition phenomenon:著しい遷移現象
(b) All commercial fuels are composed of hydrocarbons, some with sizable quantities* of free carbon and all with some impurities.
[注]*sizable quantities:かなりの量
(c) Results of special processes cannot be verified fully by subsequent inspection* and testing of the product.
[注]*subsequent inspection:事後の検査
(d) Usability testing can help you understand the weakness* of a product before it reaches the market place.
[注]*weakness:問題点

Ⅵ 次の(a)から(b)より1問選び、その下線部を和訳しなさい。なお、選んだ1問の記号を解答欄の□に記入しなさい。<各20点(40点)>
(a)(1) Recorded sound enables us to listen to music wherever and whenever we like. Recordings can be broadcast to millions of people by radio. Small, lightweight personal stereos and compact disk players allow us to enjoy music in private, even while we are on the move. Most recorded sound depends on either magnetism or light. Personal stereos and tape recorders use magnetism. (2) Before sound can be recorded magnetically, it must first be changed into an electrical signal by a microphone.
(b)(1) The so-called “greenhouse effect” that may be so dislocating has made the earth hospitable to life in the first place. Without a heat-trapping blanket of naturally occurring CO2, the planet would have an average surface temperature of only 0°F instead of 59°F. Reason: like the glass panels of a greenhouse, CO2 molecules are transparent to visible light, allowing the sun’s rays to warm the earth’s surface. (2) However, when the surface gives off its excess heat, it does so not with visible light but with infrared radiation.

Ⅶ 次の(a)、(b)、(c)より2問選び、その下線部を英訳しなさい。なお、選んだ2問の記号を解答欄の□に記入しなさい。<各15点(30点)>
(a) 安全を考えると、機械が偶然に始動するのを防止するのは重要なことである。従って、担当作業員*が自分の運転している位置を離れることなく動力が切れるようにすべきである。
[注]*担当作業員:machine operator
(b) パソコンはどれも少しずつセットアップ方法が違うので、セットップ開始前に必ずマニュアルのセットアップ手順をよく読んでケーブルをソケットの接続関係を正しく理解しておくこと。システムのセットアップは手順を追って*進め、マニュアルの指示に注意深く従うこと。
[注]*手順を追って:step by step
(c) 走行中に水温計の異常に気が付いたら、できるだけ速やかに路肩へ車を寄せる*。この時エンジンは、しばらくの間アイドリング状態にする。周辺の安全を確認し、ボンネットを開け、風通しを良くしてエンジンルーム内の冷却をする。ただし、高温時には絶対のラジエータキャップを開けてはならない。
[注]*路肩へ寄せる:pull off the road


準2級模範解答

Ⅰ (a) 1  (b) 2  (c) 1  (d) 3  (e) 3
Ⅱ (a)-1 4 (a)-2 2  (b)-1 6 (b)-2 8  (c)-1 3 (c)-2 10
Ⅲ (a) 2  (b) 3  (c) 3  (d) 1  (e) 2
Ⅳ (a) 7  (b) 2  (c) 4  (d) 10
Ⅴ (a) 超電導とは、ある種の金属を絶対温度0℃(-273℃)付近の温度まで下げた時、その金属に生じる著しい遷移現象に関係する。
  (b) 市販のすべての燃料は炭化水素から成り、あるものは、かなりの量の遊離の炭素を、そしてすべてのものが不純物を含んでいる。
  (c) 特殊工程の結果は、事後の製品検査および試験では十分に検証できない。
  (d) ユーザビリティテストを行うことは、市場に出る前に製品の問題点を理解する助けとなる。
Ⅵ (a) (1) 音の録音によって、われわれはどこでも、いつでも音楽を聴くことができる。録音された音は、数百万もの人々にラジオ放送することができる。
    (2) 磁気記録するにあたっては、音をまずマイクロホンで電気信号に交換しなければならない。
  (b) (1) (われわれの環境に)大きな影響を与える可能性のある、いわゆる温室効果は、最初、我々の地球を生命にとって住みやすいところにした。
    (2) しかし、地表が過剰の熱を放散する場合、それは可視光線によるのではなく、赤外線放射によるのである。
Ⅶ (a) Thus, the machine operator must be able to cut off power without leaving his/her operation position.
  (b) Set up the system step by step, carefully following the instruction in the manual
  (c) If you notice that the temperature gauge is reading hot while you’re driving, pull off the road as soon as possible.
2級試験問題(抜粋)
Ⅰ 次の英文を和訳しなさい。(30点)
Living organisms are autonomous, self-propagating chemical systems. They are made from a distinctive and restricted set of small carbon-based molecules that are essentially the same for every living species. The main categories are sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides. Sugars are a primary source of chemical energy for cells and can be incorporated into
polysaccharides for energy storage. Fatty acids are also important for energy storage, but their most significant function is in the formation of cell membranes. Polymers consisting of amino acids constitute the remarkably diverse and versatile macromolecules known as proteins. Nucleotides play a central part in energy transfer and also are the subunits from which the informational macromolecules, RNA and DNA, are made.

Ⅱ 次の(a), (b)から1問選び、和訳しなさい。なお、選んだ問題の記号を〇で囲みなさい。<1問選択 (30点)>
(a) Most superconductors are metals that lose resistance to electricity when cooled below a certain temperature. Because they conduct electricity with no energy loss, the transfer of electricity is less costly. Unfortunately, these superconductors must be cooled to temperatures below 70 K. However, new superconducting materials are being developed that conduct electricity at much higher temperatures than conventional superconductors.
 Temperatures nearing 130 K have been attained with some of the new compounds. In the future, room-temperature perconductors may be used to produce more efficient electrical motors and electromagnets.

Ⅲ 次の各組の英文をそれぞれ1文にまとめ、簡潔な英文に書き直しなさい。<各8点 (計40点)>
(a) ・Scientists shot a laser beam of light through a super-cooled piece of optical material.
  ・Doing so enabled them to slow the speed of light down to 38 miles per hour.
(b) ・Programmers stored year data as two digits.
  ・They assumed the first two numerals of a year would always be “19xx."
(c) ・Researchers have isolated the gene for DiGeorge syndrome.
  ・DiGeorge syndrome causes birth defects in the heart, the face, and the thymus.

Ⅳ 次の英文の中のインフォメーションワード(重要な情報を持つ語句で1カ所とは限らない)に下線を引きなさい。さらに簡潔な英文に書き直しなさい(試験は5問題)。<各8点 (計40点)>
<例> ・インフォメーションワードに下線を引く。
   The two cars were destroyed by the truck.
   ・簡潔な英文に書き直す。
   The truck destroyed the two cars.
(a) Such jobs as designing, building, and staffing the International Space Station are big ones.
(b) There is a substance that slows the light and it is called Bose-Einstein condensate.
(c) In January 2000 it may happen that your computer thinks that the current month and year is January 1900.

Ⅴ  次の和文を英文60語以内に要約しなさい。解答欄下の( )には必ず語数を記入すること。(30点)
 今、盛んに叫ばれているデジタル化は、機器には急激な変化を、業界構造には大きな変革をもたらしていて大変な状況である。エレクトロニクスによって生まれた三大産業であるコンピュータ、電気通信、および放送では、これまでのところ伝統的な支配力を持っていた巨大企業が、急速に変わる環境に対応するため、いろいろな対策、つまり主に従業員の大量削減とか事業の縮小化を図ったり、事業の再構築を模索するなど、まさに涙が出るというか、身を削るような努力を重ねているのが現状といえる。

Ⅵ 次の(a), (b), (c)から1問選び、英訳しなさい。なお、選んだ問題の記号を〇で囲みなさい。<1問選択 (30点)>

(a) 原子の構造上、電子は一つの原子の一番外側の殻から隣の殻に自由に移動することが多い。一方、陽子は原子の核の中に固定され、自由に動くことができない。したがって、電荷に関するほとんどすべての議論は、電子に関係する負の電荷を取り扱う。静電気学は固定した、つまり静止した電荷に関する学問である。
(b) セルローズは、銅の塩とアンモニアとで可溶性の錯体をつくる。したがって、セルローズを水酸化ナトリウムを含んでいる硫酸銅のアンモニア性溶液に加えると、溶けて粘性の高い青い溶液となる。この溶液を分子量の指標として、セルローズの粘度を測定するのに使用される場合には、シュヴァイッツア(Schweizer)溶液と呼ばれている。


2級模範解答
Ⅰ  生物は、自律的で自己増殖をする化学システムである。生物は、基本的にはどの生物にも共通であるが、各生物ごとに特有で、かつ限定された小さい炭素化合物からできている。その主なものは糖、脂肪酸、アミノ酸、およびヌクレオチドである。糖は細胞の化学エネルギー源であり、多糖を形成してエネルギーを貯蔵できる。脂肪酸もエネルギーの貯蔵に重要であるが、その一番重要な働きは細胞膜の形成である。タンパク質はアミノ酸からなるポリマーであり、非常に多様、かつ多能な巨大分子である。ヌクレオチドはエネルギー転移に中心的役割を果たし、情報を担う巨大分子であるRNAやDNAなどの構成単位となる。
Ⅱ (a) 大多数の超電導体は、ある温度以下に冷却されると電気抵抗を失う金属である。エネルギー損失なしで電気を伝導するので、安いコストで送電ができる。残念ながらこれらの超電導体は、絶対温度70度以下に冷却されなければならない。しかし、従来の超電導体よりも、はるかに高い温度で電気を伝導する新しい超電導体が開発されている。新しい化合物では、絶対温度130度付近の温度を達成しているものもある。将来、一層効果的なモータや電磁石を生産するため、室温で作動する超電導体が使用されるかもしれない。
Ⅲ (a) By shooting a laser beam of light through a super-cooled piece of optical material,   scientists were able to slow the speed of light down to 38 miles per hour.
  (b) Programmers stored year data as two digits, assuming the first two numerals of a year would always be "19xx."
  (c) Researchers have isolated the gene for DiGeorge syndrome, which causes birth defects in the heart, the face, and the thymus.
Ⅳ (a) Such jobs as designing, building, and staffing the International Space Station are big ones.
     → Designing, building, and staffing the International Space Station are big jobs.
  (b) There is a substance that slows the light and it is called Bose-Einstein condensate.
     → The substance that slows the light is called Bose-Einstein condensate.
  (c) In January 2000 it may happen that your computer thinks that the current month and
        year is January 1900.
     → In January 2000, your computer may think it is January 1900.
Ⅴ  Digitization is providing both a radical change in the equipment and a revolution in the structure of industry. Electronics created three very large industries: computing, telecommunications, and broadcasting. The most powerful companies in these industries are being forced to respond to their rapidly changing environments, principally by eliminating much staff while downsizing and refocusing their operations.  (56 words)
Ⅵ  (a) Because of the way atoms are constructed, electrons often are free to travel from the outermost shell of one atom to the next. Protons, on the other hand, are fixed inside the nucleus of an atom and are not free to move. Consequently, nearly all discussions of electric charge deal with negative electric charges associated with the electron. Electrostatics is the study of fixed, or stationary electric charges.
   (b) Cellulose forms a soluble complex with copper salt and ammonia. Thus, when cellulose is added to an ammonical solution of copper sulfate which contains sodium hydroxide, it dissolves to form a viscous blue solution. When this solution is used in determining the viscosity of cellulose as a measure of its molecular weight, it is called a "Schweizer solution."

1級模範解答
Ⅰ  流れはどこにでもあり、流れに依存した輸送プロセスが、生命に欠かせない酸素を人体に供給している。人の血管中では、大量の流れによって必要栄養素が運ばれ細胞に到達する。その細胞で、複雑な化学反応により、栄養素は人体の構築やエネルギー供給に貢献する。人体にとって液体の流れが重要であるのと同様に、動物相および植物相全体における数多の流れは、等しく大切なものである。こうした流れがなければ、自然界に成長は存在せず、人間は「自然な食物」を奪われることになる。

Ⅱ Protein folding is the process by which a protein structure assumes its functional shape or conformation. It is the physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from a random coil. Amino acids in the protein interact with each other to produce the three-dimensional structure. Misfolding may result in diseases and allergies. (58 words)

Ⅲ Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person’s weight is greater than what’s considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might affect your weight include your genetic makeup, overeating, eating high-fat foods, and not being physically active. Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and some cancers. If you are obese, losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. For example, that means losing 10 to 20 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds.

Ⅳ  Fiber optics communications is free from electromagnetic induction noise as it transmits signals by light, not by electricity. Since its loss is very small, it can be used over longer distances than copper wire-based electric communications. Yet fiber optics cables are more fragile than copper wire, so they must be handled and laid with care. They need to be bent loosely even where copper wire can be bent at 90 degrees. They have much lower durability than copper wire against external forces, like those applied when they are stepped on or pulled.

Ⅴ  Resilience of ecosystems is not constant. It varies according to the magnitude of environmental stress, the load humans cause on them. This can be compared to the health of humans: increased psychological pressure weakens the immune system and physical strength, causing them to easily fall ill. Analyses using mathematical models of ecosystems indicate that their resilience under no human influence decreases as the environmental stress increases, and that it finally becomes zero when the environmental stress reaches a critical level. (80 words)

旧形式1級試験問題(抜粋)
Ⅰ 次の英文を和訳しなさい。(20点)
 A comprehensive risk/utility analysis begins with acknowledging that the law has imposed upon the manufacturer the duty to reasonably foresee hazards arising from all aspects of product use. Hazards arise when people interact with the product while it is being used within an expected or reasonably foreseeable environment. The prospective risk/utility analysis must first consider the reasonably foreseeable environments in which the product will be used, the characteristics of the users, and how they will apply or misuse the product. Reasonably foreseeable misuses are perhaps the most difficult consideration. The law has imposed this duty upon manufacturers because people are rarely as perfect as the products they use.

Ⅱ 次の英文はある外信記事である。これを読んで、それにふさわしい表題(Headline)を英文10語以内で、また要旨を英文40語以内で書きなさい。なお解答欄下の()には必ず語数を記入すること。 (30点)
 The finding would be revolutionary because it would force physicists to rethink a central theory of modern science: That the universe began expanding at the Big Bang and will keep expanding forever.
 The Super-Kamiokande Experiment research team, a group of 120 scientists from around the world, presented their findings on Friday at a physics conference.
 The finding had the physicists almost giddy. "I think they have definitely made a discovery," said Paul Langacker, chairman of the department of physics and astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. 
 He said he has never seen physicists so excited about a discovery in his 20-year career.
 Neutrinos are one of nature's basic building blocks but they are very difficult to track. They have no charge and are so small that they pass right through matter.
 The Kamiokande group, which includes researchers from Japan, the United States, Germany, and Poland, used a 50,000-ton tank filled with purified water to catch a glimpse of some of the trillions of particles that pass through the earth every second.
 Collisions between neutrinos and atoms in the tank create a spark detected by equipment surrounding the tank.? The whole system was buried in a kilometer of rock to block cosmic rays and radiation.
 Though the scientists have not measured neutrino mass, they say that some neutrinos oscillate, or change type, as they pass through space or matter.? A widely accepted theory says anything that oscillates must have mass, but the standard theory for fundamental particles decrees that they have no mass.
 If the findings presented Friday can be repeated independently, researchers say they'll have firm evidence that the standard theory needs to be reconsidered.
 The unified theory is an effort to combine in one set of mathematical equations all of the fundamental forces in nature: gravity; electromagnetic energy, such as light; and the interactions between subatomic particles.
 The concept was first proposed by Albert Einstein. The search for a unified theory has failed so far because of uncertainties-such as the mass of neutrinos.
 Neutrino mass could help explain why astronomers can't find 90 percent of the matter that's supposed to exist in the universe.
 Given the speed at which the universe is expanding, physicists think the universe should be of a certain mass. But when they add up the weight of the planets, stars, and all other known stuff in the cosmos they get a number only 10 percent as large as their theory predicts.
 That inconsistency has lead many to conclude either that much more of the universe is hidden in mysterious dark spots, or that the theory is seriously flawed.
 The mass of an individual neutrino is perhaps billions of times less than an electron, the particle with the smallest known mass.? But together all the neutrinos could account for a big part of the universe's mysteriously missing mass.
 If the universe has enough mass, it must contract at some point because of the pull of its own gravity.

Ⅲ 次の各組の英文をそれぞれ1文にまとめ、簡潔な英文に書き直しなさい。<各10点 (計30点)>
(a) ・Marvin Minsky built a revolutionary light microscope that eliminated the need to cut a  specimen into thin sections.
  ・The microscope enabled Minsky to view successively deeper layers in a specimen with astonishing clarity.
(b) ・Primary or compressional waves (P waves) of an earthquake send particles oscillating back and forth in the same direction as the waves are traveling.
  ・Secondary or transverse shear waves (S waves) of an earthquake impart vibrations perpendicular to their direction of travel.

Ⅳ 次の英文を60語以内の英文に要約しなさい。解答欄下の( )には必ず語数を記入すること。(30点)
 The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is the first general-purpose orbiting observatory. The HST makes observations in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The primary mirror of the HST has a diameter of 94.5 in. (240 cm), and the optics of the telescope are designed so that, theoretically, when making a visible-light observation, the telescope can resolve astronomical objects that are an angular distance of 0.05 arcsecond apart. Originally equipped with five detectors, the HST also has three fine guidance sensors that can be used for precision astronomy measurements such as determining the distances of stars from the earth.
 After the HST was launched, scientists discovered that its primary mirror had a systematic aberration, the result of a manufacturing error. A service mission was carried out in December 1993 using the space shuttle Endeavor. A corrective optical device, called the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), was inserted in the slot for the High Speed? Photometer, which had to be removed to make room for COSTAR. The Wide-Field Planetary Camera, which had a different optical path from the other four instruments, was replaced with a second camera, which has a built-in correction for the aberration in the primary mirror.

Ⅴ 次の英文を無駄のない、簡潔な英文に書き直しなさい。(30点)
 Two or more substances of various kinds can be mixed together into a new kind of substance without combining chemically. Such a combination is called a mixture by scientists. Soil, air, milk, a salad, and iced tea are examples of commonly found mixtures.
Each component in a mixture keeps its identity as a substance. These mixtures that we have described above can be separated by two methods: either by a physical change or by mechanical means. For example, we all know that salt water is a mixture of salt and water. If this mixture of salt and water is heated, the water part of the mixture can be boiled off. When the boiling process is finished, the salt remains. Thus, we can understand that salt water is separated by a physical change, the evaporation of water. In a completely different way, a wire screen can be used to separate a mixture of pebbles and sand.
This mixture of pebbles and sand is thus being separated by mechanical means, that is, by the mechanical action of the wire screen.

Ⅵ 次の和文を英訳しなさい。(30点)
 物理学に属する量の大きさには制限が本来ないにもかかわらず、利口な方法を使って、物理学者は自分の仕事を果たす。物理学者というものは、多かれ少なかれ実験的に環境から切り離すことができるような現象を研究することにより、自分が戦える場を選ぶ。これは、例えば生物学のような他の科学と比べると、大変な強みである。生物学では、扱う対象が心臓とか個々の細胞とかいった実在物であって、どうしてももっと高度に複雑な系と戦わなければならない。

Ⅶ 次の(a), (b), (c)から1問選び、英訳しなさい。なお、選んだ問題の記号を〇で囲みなさい。<1問選択 (30点)>
(a) 剛体の平面運動における回転成分の解析は、瞬間中心の位置が分かれば簡単になる。瞬間中心とは、物体上のどの点においても瞬間の角速度が変わらないように物体が固定される点である。それゆえ、物体は固定された瞬間中心のまわりを回転するように見える。瞬間中心の位置は絶対速度の方向が分かっている2点を見つけることにより定められる。この2つの速度に垂直に引かれた直線は瞬間中心で交わる。
(b) 合成アンモニアの製造はHarberプロセスで最初に成功したが、そのプロセスでは窒素と水素を混ぜて、ある程度の高温、加圧下で触媒と接触させ、その元素ガスをアンモニアに部分転化する。アンモニア、その塩類のあるもの、およびその誘導体は貴重な肥料である。さらには、硝酸が必要な場合には、 アンモニアを触媒を用いて大気中の酸素によって酸化することができるので、合成アンモニア法は、アーク法が直接製造するものを大気中の窒素から間接的に製造できるプロセスでもある。


1級模範解答
Ⅰ  広範囲な危険・効用分析は、法が製造業者に対して製品用途のあらゆる場面で発生する危険を合理的に予見する義務を課しているということを認識することから始まる。危険は、製品が予期されている環境下、あるいは合理的に予見できる環境下で用いられている場合に、人間が製品と接する時に発生するのである。これからの危険・効用分析は、まず製品が使われるのに合理的に予見できる環境、使用者の特徴、そして使用者がその製品をどのように用いるか、あるいはどのように誤って用いるかについて考慮しなければならない。合理的に予見できる誤用を考えることは恐らく最も難しいことである。法がこの義務を製造業者に課しているのは、人間は使用する製品ほど完全であることがまずあり得ないからである。
Ⅱ  Headline: Neutrino Research Shakes up Laws of Physics (7 words)
   要約: An international team of scientists said that they may have unlocked one of the biggest mysteries of physics with evidence that an infinitesimally small subatomic particle called the neutrino has mass. If true, it will affect the Big Bang theory. (40 words)
Ⅲ  (a) Marvin Minsky built a revolutionary light microscope that enabled him to view successively deeper layers in a specimen with astonishing clarity, without first (having to cut) cutting the specimen into thin sections.
   (b) Primary or compressional waves (P waves) of an earthquake send particles oscillating back and forth in the same direction as the waves are traveling, whereas secondary or transverse shear waves (S waves) impart vibrations perpendicular to their direction of travel.
Ⅳ  The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is the first general-purpose orbiting observatory. The primary mirror can resolve astronomical objects 0.05 arcsecond apart. But, after launch, a manufacturing error was discovered that caused an aberration in the primary mirror. The Endeavor was launched in 1993 to repair the aberration by inserting a corrective optical device and a new camera. (57 words)
Ⅴ  Two or more substances can be mixed together without combining chemically. Such a combination is called a mixture. Soil, air, milk, a salad, and iced tea are mixtures. Each component in a mixture keeps its identity. Mixtures can be separated by physical change or mechanical means. For example, salt water is a mixture of salt and water. If the mixture is heated, the water can be boiled off. The salt remains. Thus, salt water is separated by a physical change, the evaporation of water. A wire screen can be used to separate a mixture of pebbles and sand by mechanical means.
Ⅵ  Even though the magnitudes of quantities within physics are essentially unbounded, physicists employ a clever strategy to do their work. They choose their own battlefields by studying phenomena that they can more or less isolate experimentally from the surroundings. This is a tremendous advantage over other sciences such as biology, which must grapple with systems of vastly greater complications, dealing with entities such as the heart or an individual cell.
Ⅶ  (a) Analysis of the rotational component of a rigid body's plane motion can be simplified if the location of the body's instantaneous center is known. The instantaneous center is a point at which the body could be fixed without changing the instantaneous angular velocities of any point on the body. Thus, the body seems to rotate about a fixed instantaneous center. The instantaneous center is located by finding two points for which the absolute velocity directions are known.? Lines drawn perpendicular to these two velocities will intersect at the instantaneous center.
   (b) The manufacture of synthetic ammonia was first successfully completed via the Harber process, in which a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen is passed, at a moderately high temperature and under pressure, over a contact catalyst with a partial conversion of the elemental gases to ammonia. Ammonia, some of its salt, and its derivatives are valuable fertilizers. Moreover, if nitric acid is called for, ammonia may be oxidized with atmospheric oxygen, aided by a contact catalyst, so that the synthetic ammonia process may also produce from atmospheric nitrogen, in an indirect way, what the arc process furnishes directly.